Thursday, December 26, 2019

History Of The North American Free Trade Agreement Essay

The NAFTA Controversy The purpose of this document is to explore the history of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the effects NAFTA has had on Canada, the United States of America (specifically American labor and job market) and Mexico. It will also delve into the current state of NAFTA, the advantages and disadvantages to American economy and what the future holds for this historic trade agreement. NAFTA has effected many parts of the world and not just the three countries who originally signed the agreement. It has caused several negative effects for many, especially citizens of the United States; but what evidence is there of this claim. Before jumping into the evidence for or against NAFTA, let’s look at the history as this will bring some perspective to the event. The roots of NAFTA stretch back well before its signing in induction in 1994. Many believe that the true origin of the idea of having a free trade agreement with Northern, and Central America began with the signing of the Trade and Tariff Act in 1984 in the USA congress. The Trade and Tariff Act was important as it lent the President of the United States of America the ability to expedite the process of creating trade deals, leaving the USA Congress the opportunity to approve or disapprove the proposal. This idea was pushed by Ronald Reagan and passed. Reagan then began collaborating with the then Canadian Prime Minister, Brian Mulroney, who signed an agreement of free trade betweenShow MoreRelatedEssay about The History of the North American Free Trade Agreement1169 Words   |  5 PagesIn 1994, three countries formed the world’s largest free trade zone. This free trade zone was called The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This organization was founded by Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The main goals of the agreement was to strengthen the special bond of friendship and cooperation among each other’s nations; and to create, expand, a nd secure future market opportunities and business. NAFTA is not lead by one nation, so one country does not make all of the decisions;Read MoreThe Free Trade Agreement854 Words   |  3 PagesThe Free Trade Agreement (FTA) as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were failures. The North American Free Trade Agreement was one of the most controversial documents of the 20th century, beginning January 1st 1988.1 The reason it was so controversial was because it was loved in some ways yet hated in others. One of the reasons why the FTA and NAFTA were failures is due to the fact that Prime Minister Brian Mulroney lost a lot of votes caused by the amount of voters that disapprovedRead MoreThe United States And Nafta1299 Words   |  6 PagesUniversity of Baltimore â€Æ' The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was designed to create trade that was mutually beneficial for all North American countries. Yet a recent change in the U.S. administration has threatened continued trade between the three major players – the U.S, Canada and Mexico. New President Donald J. Trump’s promises to renegotiate NAFTA have both Canada and Mexico on edge, and without stability, can possibly force Mexico to opt out of the agreement altogether. While NAFTARead MoreThe North American Free Trade Agreement. One Of The Major1307 Words   |  6 Pages The North American Free Trade Agreement One of the major keys to having two or more parties successfully trade and invest with each other is the ability to make agreements peacefully and come to similar terms. Many times, people would like to trade goods and services, but cannot agree on the terms each other have made. This can obviously cause many problems with trading and is the reason many deals do not go through, which can impact not only the people involved, but many more people very negativelyRead MoreThe North American Free Trade Agreement1711 Words   |  7 PagesThis paper will discuss four components of the North American Free Trade Agreement: Background, events, pros and cons. Upon the research, you will discover four online articles to provide more detail and examples. This research will indicate how it was developed and the reasoning on why it would benefit the nation. Also, it will provide events that occur after the agreement was signed by congress and the recession the countries experience during the e arly 2000s. There will be a chart locatedRead MoreThe North American Free Trade Agreement1118 Words   |  5 PagesThe North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) has tremendously helped Canada and its economic well- being. On the beginning of the year of 1994, an agreement on the basis of trading between Canada, the United States of America, and Mexico was made. This agreement was based on the motive of free trade, such that of paying significantly less in import and export taxes between the three nations. NAFTA has aided North America extensively, that being said helping Canada’s economy is no exception to it’sRead MoreEssay On Nafta1182 Words   |  5 PagesKey term As a result of extensive research on various topics, the one area there has been on the rise and is subject to further debate and analysis is the North American free trade agreement. This particular treaty is of interest owing to the current globalization that is fast consuming economies across the world as well as the change in leadership in the three countries involved. As a result, this essay takes into account the current economic state of the world about the increased competition;Read MoreFree Trade : U.s. A And Canada1373 Words   |  6 PagesFREE TRADE BETWWEN U.S.A AND CANADA The first thing we should understand is what is what is FREE TRADE or the meaning of FREE TRADE The definition which I can think of is Free trade is international policy where governments doesn’t create any restriction and on goods and other materials to import or export smoothly and no heavy taxes are applied so that both countries can operate smoothly and gain profit. OR The treaty in which 2Read MoreGlobalization: A Free Trade Phenomenon Essay866 Words   |  4 Pages Globalization is â€Å"the integration of states through increasing contact, communication and trade to create a holistic, single global system in which the process of change increasingly binds people together in a common fate† (Carey 2002). Some economists recognize globalization as being in the best interest of all states. While others believe that increasingly liberated trade and global economic interaction is necessary in many ways. While globalization marks a move toward a more open world-tradingRead More International Trade Essay865 Words   |  4 Pages International Trade What is International Trade?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries in the exchange of goods and services. In order to understand International trade, we need to first know and understand what trade is, which is the buying and selling of products between different countries. International Trade simply is globalization of the world and enables countries to obtain products and services from other countries effortlessly

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Capital Punishment Should Not Be Abolished - 750 Words

Capital Punishment Should Not be Abolished There are many reasons why the United States of America keeps capital punishment. These reasons include the deterrence theory, the idea of retribution, cost of prisons, and general safety of the public. First of all, I’m sure that you have heard of the deterrence theory. Deterrence is basically the fear of punishment; and even though it doesn’t prevent all crimes, the results are still undeniable. The deterrence theory is when criminals think about the consequences of each crime, they weigh the pros and cons before they commit it, and if the consequence is death, the crime is usually avoided. It has been proven that the death penalty deters crime. In 1997 to 1999, law†¦show more content†¦According to the BBC Ethic’s Guide, the basic principles behind retribution are: â€Å"All guilty people deserve to be punished†, â€Å"Only guilty people deserve to be punished† and â€Å"Guilty people deserve to be punished in proportion to the severity of their crime† (BBC Ethics). With the death sentence on killers, the murder victim’s family can have a sense of closure. Keeping criminals in prison also cost a lot to each state. Accordin g to statistics from studies by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, prison costs have been rising. In 1986, prisons cost taxpayers at least $10 billion (PEW). Within ten years, in 1996, prisons cost people at least $27 billion (PEW). Finally, in 2005, they cost a minimum of $42 billion (PEW). From the studies, it was discovered that over the next five years, prisons all over the nation would increase almost three times as quickly as resident populations (PEW). By next year, in 2011, prison costs have been predicted to be as high as 55 billion US dollars (PEW). Every year, the cost of a prison inmate is around 22 thousand US dollars (Lowe). That means an individual in prison for 5 years will cost the public more than 100 thousand dollars (Lowe). The cost of a life term is an average 1.5 million US dollars (Lowe). Prisoners are provided with housing, food, medical care, prison safety, transportation etc. and capital punishment includes all of that, but for a shorter period of time. Ther e is noShow MoreRelatedCapital Punishment Should Be Abolished965 Words   |  4 PagesHaesemeyer Advanced Studies English 9 7 April 2017 Capital Punishment Over the centuries, capital punishment has fallen in and out of public support. In several countries, the practice has been overruled by law. In others, it is simply not exercised. More than half of U.S. states still practice capital punishment for capital crimes. Often, innocent people are sentenced to death because of circumstantial evidence. Capital punishment should be abolished in all fifty U.S. states because of the severalRead MoreCapital Punishment Should Not Be Abolished1541 Words   |  7 Pagestime, if a person committed a severe crime, like murder or rape, they were executed to maintain peace in the community and to bring comfort to those who knew the victim. Capital punishment has been used in almost every part of the world, but in the last few decades many countries have abolished it. The issue of capital punishment has been a sensitive topic for nations attempting a careful balancing act between prisoner’s rights and legal defense teams and society’s la ws on cases of extreme gravityRead MoreCapital Punishment Should Not Be Abolished901 Words   |  4 Pagesgovernment (â€Å"Capital Punishment in the United States†). Capital punishment is being debated all over the world whether it is murder or justice for the crime they have committed. Statistics show that murderers often kill again after releasement from prison. The Bureau of Justice gives relevant statistics pertaining to murderers who were released from prison: in 1994 40.7% of murderers were arrested for a new crime within three years of release (United States Department of Justice). Capital punishment shouldRead MoreCapital Punishment Should Be Abolished1115 Words   |  5 Pagesjail time, house arrest, and/or having to pay fines. Crimes that are severe can lead to greater punishment, like spending life in prison. The most severe crimes can lead one to an equally severe punishment known as capital punishment. Capital punishment is the authorization to kill someone fo r the crime he or she has committed. Capital punishment, commonly referred to as the death penalty, should be abolished in all states because it can put innocent lives at risk, it costs millions of dollars each yearRead MoreCapital Punishment Should be Abolished883 Words   |  4 Pages Capital punishment is the punishment of death for a crime given by the state. It is used for a variety of crimes such as murder, drug trafficking and treason. Many countries also have the death penalty for sexual crimes such as rape, incest and adultery. The lethal injection, the electric chair, hanging and stoning are all methods of execution used throughout the world. Capital punishment has been around since ancient times; it was used in ancient Rome, and one of the most famous people to be crucifiedRead MoreCapital Punishment Should Be Abolished1137 Words   |  5 PagesThe case for capital punishment Topic: why capital punishment should continue General purpose: To argue Specific purpose: my main aim is to convince the audience that capital punishment should be upheld. In other, the advantages of capital punishment outweigh its disadvantages. Introduction Capital punishment is also known as death penalty and it has been in existence since time immemorial. Throughout history, the death penalty has been used to punish a number of crimes that include murderRead MoreCapital Punishment Should Be Abolished1955 Words   |  8 Pagesit has become apparent that capital punishment should be abolished worldwide. Around the world, various countries continue to practice this brash, inhumane punishment. The legal system is intended to regulate citizen’s behaviour which aims to provide a smooth functioning society. When someone is sentenced to death, the legal system loses the â€Å"fair† aspect of the proceedings, as under no circumstances is the death penalty â€Å"fair†. Capital punishment should be abolished because it violates Section 12Read MoreCapital Punishment Should Be Abolished1135 Words   |  5 Pagesname -unknown. Nobody should ever have to hear these words. Especially coming from their own state the one that is supposed to protect their rights no matter what. Capital punishment should be abolished from the United States. The number one goal of the constitution is to protect the life of an individual and the death penalty passes by this. The death penalty is an easy way out of the crime, it is expensive, philosophers and even psychologists disagree with capital punishment and most important itRead MoreCapital Punishment Should Be Abolished Essay1293 Words   |  6 PagesApproaching the topic of capital punishment is difficult when looking at society as a whole. In the opinion stated by my class group, capital punishment should be entirely abolished due to the possibility of mistakes while sentencing. This idea relies on the basis that capital punishment has absolutely no purpose or benefit. Members of my group mistakenly used a utilitarianist point of view to argue their case, even though this view can be stretched to fit almost any argument. This paper will exploreRead MoreCapital Punish ment Should Be Abolished1439 Words   |  6 Pagesto outlaw capital punishment in America completely. We are meant to be better and bigger than this then why do w still have this barbaric law in practice it is inhumane, morally wrong and expensive. In my paper I will try to cover the taboo topic of capital punishment and why it should be abolished because if we as a society want to grow and advance in a sophisticated society we must abolish the death penalty all across the land. To begin with I must explain what capital punishment really is and

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Child Abuse Essay free essay sample

Child Abuse is harm done to a child; this person causing the abuse can be either a child or an adult. Sadly, child abuse has been practiced in all cultures, and in all ethics throughout the world. In certain places child abuse started to be noticed and considered as one of the major problems in society. It is normally caused by stress or an economic problem, the average of child abuse is frightfully high, which is unacceptable we should unite as a society to make this end throughout the entire world. Experts attribute to the recent increase in reporting that we need greater public awareness of child maltreatment, but societal groups don’t realize that this is a huge problem. There are several points of view on this certain type of issue, as some people think that it is absolutely right that a good portion of attention is being paid to children abuse and also to protect them from harm. There are many different forms of child abuse. That is why it is difficult for people to realize it is going on in today’s society. Some are clearer than others. An example is a little 6 year old boy. He was left to live his father and step-mother when his real mother left him. They would lock him in closets, for more than 24 hours at a time. They would chain him so he could not move. He would be forced to eat food coated in spicy sauces and then deprived of liquids. The poor innocent boys cries would be muffled with a radio or dish soap. His crime ? Not being able to sleep. That story was a very clear example of child abuse. This story however is not so clear. A young boy who appeared to have a perfect life. His family would spend all their time with him. Such as playing football, going to parks, reading stories and such. This boy however was very introverted in a very extraverted family. His parents would pick him up and tickle him; a simple act of affection. However this young boy would scream and cry when being tickled. His parents continued to tickle him and his siblings would do this to him too. When in court, his parents were tried with child abuse. There are four main types of abuse: sexual, physical, emotional, and neglect. Sexual abuse includes a wide variety of things, but it narrows down to any sexual contact with a child or use of a child for sexual pleasure. 85-90 % of cases involve an abuser that knows the child. 35 % involve a family member. There are some behavioral indicators that a child has been sexually abused. They are: the sudden reluctance to go someplace or be with someone, and using sexual words that most children of their age group would not be using, or acting with a sexual maturity not of their age group. Physical abuse is the next type. This can be defined as the non-accidental physical injury of a child including beatings, burns, biting, strangulation, scalding, bruises, welts, broken bones, scars, or serious internal injury or simply if the parent or guardian allows the child to be in a dangerous situation. The signs for physical abuse are if a child avoids physical contact with others, or wears clothing to cover up bruises or cuts. The next type is emotional abuse. This is a pattern of behavior that attacks a child’s emotional development and self worth. It’s a sad reality that children are harassed and torn down by the people who are supposed to shield and protect them from that and love them. This also ties in with our last type which is neglect. Most people are unaware that neglect isnt as serious as the other forms of child abuse but in reality most victims of child abuse suffer from neglect. It is also the most frequent cause of death in child abusive situation. Neglect is when the child is not taken care of or deprived of basic needs by their parents or guardian. This includes, not feeding the child, not bathing it or not providing warmth in the cold. A child’s fate is anything but good when it is left out in the cold with nothing to eat. We are now aware of what child abuse really is and we are now hopefully realizing it more in our community There is however a way to prevent this from happing to our further generations. . Bob Green says, If you know in your heart, if you sense something is wrong, dont go away You have to be as relentless as those children cant be. They have no voice at all. You have to follow your instinct and listen to the little voice in your head that says something is wrong, this isnt normal. Dont ignore that voice. We found out that not all cases of child abuse are prominent and noticeable. In the tickling story no drastic measures were made to help him. There are many hotlines and associations that can help. All you need to do is call, and they alert social services about the problem. There are still so many cases being called in, so the child will never get help. So do something about it. Katie Muchmaker

Monday, December 2, 2019

Out Of Africa Essays - Karen Blixen, Danish Literature,

Out Of Africa The story is about a Danish girl, her name is Karen Blixen who went to Africa after she married with Baron. In Africa and more precisely in Kenya she started to run a coffee-farm. But its failure in 1931 caused her to return to Denmark. Baroness Karen Blixen spent 17 years in Africa. Karen began the coffee-farm with her husband, and continued to oversee the farm even after she separated in 1925. Th e farm was an unprofitable venture. Blixen shares her experiences in her book. actually she is not like all the other colonists. She helps the Kikoejoes, they are the native population Ngong Hills. When the children are sick she helps them and she gives them medicines. Kamante is her cook and he his a native child. Kamante is her cook because one day Karen helped him whit a disease. Denys is a friend of Karen, he liked to her a story tolded . Denys lived in her house between safari. He was a good friend. Denys also had a plane and from time to time Karen flew with him over Africa. When Karen left Africa she had to say goodbye to a lot of peoples. E everybody liked her. She was a friendly girl and when she was in Denmark she received letters from her friend sin Kenya. It is not a book like an other. Karen describes her surroundings -Africa's people, she pays careful attention to detail. I have chosen this book because I have lived in Africa for 11 years and while I was reading the book I recognised a lot of things. I knew what she was talking about. It looked so familiar to me. And so I liked the book.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The legal response to domestic violence The WritePass Journal

The legal response to domestic violence Abstract The legal response to domestic violence AbstractChapter 1: IntroductionChapter 2: Definition of ‘domestic abuse’ and a history of the police response.2.1 Definition2.2 Police Response to Domestic Violence Pre-19802.3 Police Response to Domestic Violence Post-1980Chapter 3: FeminismChapter 4: Legislation4.1 Criminal Law4.2 Civil LawChapter 5: Rates of reporting and non-reportingChapter 6: MethodologyChapter 7: DiscussionChapter 8: ConclusionReferencesRelated Abstract This dissertation examines the legal response to domestic violence, which, over the years has been subject to a variety of different terminology ranging from ‘wife battering’ (Pizzey, 1974; Walker, 1979) to ‘intimate partner violence’. Paying particular attention to the police, up until the early 1980’s some researchers described their general response and attitude towards incidents of domestic violence as being ‘dismissive and derogatory’ (Bourlet, 1990; Dobash and Dobash, 1980; Hanmer and Saunders, 1984; Edwards, 1989) and that, according to David Cheal (1991), the police perceive the family to be a private sphere to which ‘access to it by the state should be limited’. However, from the mid-1980’s it was recognised that there was a need for change not just in the police response, but the legal response as a whole and the Home Office began publishing papers on how domestic violence incidents should be tackled by the criminal justice system. Not only did this raise awareness of the issue but it also enabled different organisations, both statutory and voluntary, to work together which was part of the Home Office’s inter-agency initiative in 1995. More recently, there have been a number of statutes put in place that can further aid the police in their response to domestic violence and more importantly they enable them to treat incidents within the family between spouses as they would incidents that happen on the street between strangers. Chapter 1: Introduction Domestic violence has long been a problem amongst society, but until the 1980’s the agencies responsible for protecting victims of crime paid little or no attention to the issue itself, in particular the police showed reluctance to investigate and prosecute as they believed that ‘the family is a private sphere so access to it by the state should be limited’ (Cheal, 1991). However, it would be inaccurate to think that domestic violence is no longer a problem in society today and according to the 2009/10 British Crime Survey (BCS) seven percent of females compared to four percent of males aged between 16 and 59 are currently victims of domestic violence (Flatley et al., 2010). Statistics also show that between July and September 2009 there was a five percent increase in sexual offences which is in comparison to the same period of the previous year (Home Office, 2009). According to Walby and Allen, (2004) the British Crime Survey (BCS) estimated that a staggering 12.9 million domestic violence incidents against women and 2.5 million incidents against men happened in England and Wales in 2003 with 45 percent of women and 26 percent of men experiencing at least one incident of interpersonal violence in their lifetime. From this, it is therefore questionable whether or not domestic violence is regarded as being either legally or socially acceptable, as many researchers have found, from their research, that the criminal justice system appear to be ‘covertly tolerant’ (Berk et al., 1980) of the issue when really the offences committed in violent relationships are no different to that of an offence against the person. As a result of this alleged blasà © approach by the police to incidents of domestic violence, Smith (1989) found that victims of domestic violence only made contact with the emergency services as a last resort and on average s uffer 35 attacks before making the vital call to the police (Jaffe, 1982) which in effect goes against what the police as an agency stand for, that is, they are an emergency service and should act promptly and provide an effective service and not leave victims of domestic violence with very little faith in their work. However, according to Stanko (2000) even though only a small minority of victims report domestic violence to the police, with figures showing around 40 percent actually being reported to the police (Dodd et al, 2004; Walby and Allen, 2004; Home Office, 2002), they still on average receive one phone call every minute regarding domestic violence incidents in the UK amounting to an average influx of 1,300 calls a day or 570,000 calls per year. The next chapter to follow is the literature review in which the definition and ranges of terminology will be explored from past to present as to demonstrate the changes that have taken place throughout the years along with the apparent lack of coherence that have caused many researchers great difficulty when researching this particular area. The literature review will then continue to look at the police response to domestic violence from a historical perspective, namely pre-1980, and then move onto a more recent perspective from the 1980’s onwards as a comparative. Whilst the police response is of great importance to this dissertation, it is not solely directed at one single agency and the literature review will go on critically analyse the legislation, both civil and criminal, currently in place and legislation that was previously used to give an over view of the legal response as a whole and how it has changed alongside the changes in the police response. The final part of the literature review will look at rates of reporting and non-reporting of incidents to the police and examine whether or not there has been an increase of reported incidents since new legislation has been introduced and changes in police practices have happened or if there is still a reluctance by the victims to report it that has been evident in previous times. Chapter 2: Definition of ‘domestic abuse’ and a history of the police response. 2.1 Definition Over the years there have been a number of terms, ranging from ‘wife battering’ (Pizzey, 1974; Walker, 1979) to ‘intimate partner violence’, which have been used to describe what is most commonly known as ‘domestic violence’. One common issue that many researchers in the field have found is that of the definition and its lack of coherence between the writers of the issue, the Government and also the members of the public, who may merely use phrases such as ‘wife battering’ without fully appreciating the nature of the issue and the harm it can cause. In order to tackle this lack of coherence the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) set out an official definition of domestic violence which defines it as being â€Å"any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality†. (Home Office, 2010) This definition given by the Home Office has been expanded since the previous definition (Circular 19/2000), which vaguely described domestic violence as ‘any violence between current or former partners in an intimate relationship wherever and whenever it occurs’, and is now seen to further highlight the violence that can happen between family members who are 18 years of age and over and also includes various types of abuse that can also take place (e.g. financial, emotional etc.) as opposed to just being concerned with the physical violence. Previous to this updated definition, ‘domestic violence’ was recognised as the most commonly used phrase and the term of choice amongst researchers in the area (Smith, 1989) despite having a ‘far from uncritical reception’ (Mullender, 1996). Kashani and Allen (1998) commented upon this and stated that due to the sheer complexity of the issue, in terms of its elements (i.e. financial, emotional, psychological), that it would be unfair and unjust to solely regard it as an issue of ‘violence’ and so the term ‘abuse’ came about and has since made awareness of the fact that the issue isn’t just concerned with physical violence but also other aspects that aren’t considered to be violent, per se. 2.2 Police Response to Domestic Violence Pre-1980 Domestic violence is by no means a ‘new’ crime. Even dating back to the twelfth century domestic violence was prevalent, as church law stated in 1140 that ‘women were subject to their men’ and ‘needed to be corrected through castigation or punishment’. (Dutton, 1995 in Melton, 1999). The males have long been seen as having the power in the family and according to the Napoleonic Civil Code in 1804, ‘violence was only grounds for a divorce for a woman if the courts decided that it amounted to attempted murder’ (Dutton, 1995). English common law even allowed men to beat their wives with a stick no bigger than the width of their thumb, giving the term ‘rule of thumb’, and was said to be ‘uncivilised’ if the stick exceeded the rule (Brown, 1984). Given this, domestic violence wasn’t perceived to be a problem for the police as the laws in place actually condoned violence by men against women and only place d limitations as to how far the men could beat their wives, to which any further was only classed as being inappropriate, not criminal or punishable. More recently in the twentieth century, the police response to allegations of domestic violence has faced much criticism for their so-called ‘dismissive and derogatory way’ in which they have dealt with cases reported to them (Bourlet, 1990; Dobash and Dobash, 1980; Hanmer and Saunders, 1984; Edwards, 1989 also recognised by Women’s Aid). Buzawa (1990) describes the traditional response to domestic violence by the police as having an ‘overriding goal to extricate them from the dangerous and unpleasant duty with as little cost as possible and to re-involve themselves with real police work’. Berk (1980) went as far as saying that the criminal justice system show, through their policies and attitudes, a ‘covert toleration’ of domestic violence and further condone ‘rights of men to exercise their authority’ (Berk et al., 1980). Research by Smith (1989) suggested four main reasons as to why the police may have displayed this ‘dismissive and derogatory’ behaviour in their response and presented an unsympathetic attitude towards the victim. The first reason was that there were concerns surrounding the officers’ safety and research suggested that around 33% of all assaults against police officers happened whilst attending domestic incidents. Secondly, Smith suggested that the police didn’t regard it as ‘real police work’ and was often perceived to be ‘trivial’ with one Metropolitan police officer being quoted as stating that domestic disputes might be categorised alongside ‘stranded people, lost property and stray animals’ (Times, 4 October 1983). Thirdly, the police didn’t regard domestic violence incidents as ‘criminal’ as it happens within the family unit and they see this as more of private matter to which ‘access to it by the state should be limited’ (Cheal, 1991). Margaret Borkowski also stated in her book Marital Violence that the police thought that an arrest by them and a possible prosecution ‘may sometimes be unhelpful and may exacerbate strained marital and family relationships’. Finally, there was the view held that victims would be reluctant to cooperate and would eventually withdraw their allegations and drop the charges in due course. Stanko (1985) challenged these views held by the police and argued that the way in which the police responded to the female victims amounted to ‘secondary victimisation’. This idea of secondary victimisation was particularly evident in the findings of Katz and Mazur (1979) and Chambers and Miller (1983) which showed that women who did report domestic violence attacks to the police in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s had their ‘character and morality questioned in such a way as to imply some responsibility for their victimisation’. Likewise, Chambers and Miller (1987), from their research, presented a variety of ways in which the prosecution was found to use various ‘tactics’ to imply that ‘women complainants were somehow to blame for their victimisation and to throw doubt on the credibility of the case’. With reference to Adler (1987) ‘All but the most transparently flawless victim was liable to be bullied by interrogators and prosecutors, exposing her to a form of secondary victimisation’. This resulted in what Smith (1989) called the ‘don’t variety’ in which women were told ‘not to get upset, not to get things out of proportion, not to go out alone, not to go out at night, to avoid â€Å"dangerous areas†, not to put themselves at risk’ (Benn and Worpole, 1985 quoted in Walklate, 2004). This however was heavily criticised as it placed restrictions on the women’s sense of freedom and that anyone who failed to take notice of this advice should be at fault if she got attacked, as it was regarded as though she was being negligent and had brought it on herself. 2.3 Police Response to Domestic Violence Post-1980 From the mid-1980’s onwards the Home Office accepted that there was a need for change in police practices regarding domestic violence and rape. In 1983, the Home Office published a circular (Home Office, 1983) giving advice on how investigations should be conducted, the timing and conduct of medical examinations, the number of officers involved and, where possible, the importance of having female officers involved, as Chambers and Miller (1983) had found from research, conducted by the Scottish Office, that there was a widespread ‘lack of sympathy and tact by CID officers and un-uniformed policewomen’. With regards to police responses, a further circular published by the Home Office in 1986 (Home Office, 1986) gave more suggestions of effective working practices when dealing with domestic violence incidents and made it clear that it was of paramount importance to ensure and maintain the safety of the victim and also any children within the home. However, it was argued by Bourlet (1990) that in order for these suggestions to be effective then they must be adopted by the police within their policies and ‘translate directly into practice’ (Grace, 1995) in the fight against domestic violence. This was supportive of Edwards (1989) earlier argument that ‘police did not take seriously their response to crimes between intimates’. Changes in response finally came about with a circular to chief constables in 1990 (Home Office, 1990) with the aim of it being to urge the police to develop explicit force policies and develop specialist domestic violence units in all 43 forces. A number of central features were highlighted in the 1990 circular, that is, it was to impose an overriding duty to protect victims and any children by the police, to treat domestic violence as seriously as other forms of violence, as it was argued by Pahl (1985) that ‘police action differs between similar acts of violence, depending on whether they occur in the home or on the street’. The circular also put across the value of powers of arrest and made it clear that they should be exercised in these circumstances, it also reiterated the dangers of conciliation between the victim and the offender, the importance of effective recording and monitoring systems and also put forward the consideration to the police of pursuing a case, even if the victim had withdrew her support, as Hoyle (1998) found, along with many others previously, that victims of domestic violence were either very reluctant to make statements or completely withdrew them quite soon after making them, sometimes even before the offender was charged, so by the introduction, by the Home Office circular, of pursuing a case despite the victim withdrawing their statement enabled them to break the so-called cycle of the police ‘leaving the ball in the victims court’ (Hoyle, 1998). However, Dobash and Dobash (1992) argued that this change in police response articulated by the 1990 Home Office circular was one that ‘showed no sign of lasting improvement’ and that the police continued to adopt an approach that reflected ‘minimum involvement and disengagement’ based on their findings from their report in 1990 on an Assistant Chief Constable and police policies in South Wales. A later publication by the Home Office in 1995 (Home Office, 1995) encouraged the idea of inter-agency, or multi-agency approaches to domestic violence and has since then grown in popularity with the underlying idea that by different agencies, both statutory and voluntary, working together they can produce an effective approach by sharing their resources and the information that they have to provide a ‘seamless and consistent service’ (Hague, 1998). In 1999, the Home Office published the paper ‘Living without fear: An integrated approach to tackling violence against women’ (Home Office, 1999) which replaced their previous circular published in 1995. Within the paper, the Government gave recognition to the fact that violence against women was a ‘serious problem, with serious consequences’ (Harman, 2008), but also highlighted that there was some help for victims in certain areas, despite not being what Harriet Harman described as ‘comprehensive, consistent or easy to access’ in her 2008 paper ‘Tackling violence against women: A cross-government narrative’. However, for the majority, this help simply didn’t exist at all. Harriet Harmen, former Minister for Women and Equality, in the 2008 Government paper summarised and re-stated the main problems taken from the 1999 Home Office publication that the Government needed to tackle. That is, they needed to ensure that ‘violence against women was taken seriously by the Criminal Justice System, making it less of an ordeal for victims to testify in court and tackling the problems associated with securing convictions’. The issue of ‘addressing personal safety issues, including issues over housing; and protecting the children of victims of domestic abuse’ was also raised and finally they needed to ensure that ‘the Government acted in a ‘joined-up’ way to tackle violence against women’ and create a ‘zero-tolerance’ approach against it. Of late, the Home Office (2000a) 19/2000 Circular ‘Domestic violence’ which introduced the presumption of arrest where it was possible to do so, gave great emphasis on showing how local police forces deal with incidents of domestic violence based on their policies on how such incidents should be policed. A further Home Office paper ‘Domestic Violence: Breaking the chain, multi-agency guidance for addressing domestic violence’ (2000b) aimed to raise the awareness amongst all of the different agencies concerned with tackling domestic violence. Particularly, with regards to the Police, it was stated that ‘tackling domestic violence should be an integral part of their work’. It was also noted in the same publication that the Government, according to the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, expects that the crime and disorder audits carried out identify the ‘local level of domestic violence and for the Police to work with its partners to develop a strategy to address it as part of their overall crime reduction strategy’. Chapter 3: Feminism For Feminists, the law has long been regarded as being made for men and being made in the interests of men and throughout history there has been what Sachs and Wilson (1978) describe as a ‘male monopoly of law’ whereby the woman is perceived as being ‘inessential’ (De Beauvoir, 1949). Radical feminists perceive the family and marriage as the key institutions of oppression in society as the males appear to dominate the women through domestic abuse or by merely threatening the act, because of this, Millet (1970) and Firestone (1970) go on to argue that all societies have been founded on patriarchy and they see the male as being the enemy who exploit and oppress women in society. In their opinion, the patriarchal society is the chief element in explaining the reluctance of the police to investigate incidents of domestic abuse effectively in previous years and that for this to be abolished the patriarchal society needs to be overturned so that woman can live independently from the males. Chapter 4: Legislation With regards to legislation, there appeared to be a ‘lack of protection’ in the early 1970’s in the form of remedies available, particularly under civil law, as they were either ‘not easy’ to obtain or ‘inadequately used’ (Hague and Malos, 2005). It was also only possible to obtain a civil order if you were married to the perpetrator, which obviously left victims who weren’t married to their perpetrator with even fewer options of protection compared with those who were married. From this, Women’s Aid recognised that there was in fact a need for change within the civil law so that victims could apply for protection along with obtaining an occupation order of the matrimonial home based solely on their case of domestic violence without it being linked to any other criminal proceedings that may arise from the assaults as there was a resounding number of females who sought shelter at women’s refuges who had been driven out of their home and who didn’t wish to pursue help via the criminal law. 4.1 Criminal Law As mentioned before, there is no specific offence of ‘domestic violence’ under criminal law and naturally this has created difficulty for the police when dealing with such incidents as there are many different forms of offences that fall within and contribute towards the issue and so alongside the many Government papers published by the Home Office suggesting ways in which police practices regarding incidents of domestic violence should be handled, there have also been a number of different pieces of legislation introduced in the late 1990’s designed to aid the police even further. Similarly, with the paper ‘Inter-agency Co-ordination to Tackle Domestic Violence’ published by the Home Office in 1995 which suggested that both statutory and voluntary organisations should work together, the Crime and Disorder Act (CDA) 1997 also placed a duty on the authorities, thus supportive of the 1995 Home Office paper, to work alongside the police and other agencies at a local level through the provision of a Community Safety Strategy initiative. The idea being that each local authority will have in place an action plan which will provide ‘effective multi agency working to tackle domestic violence and provide high quality services’ (Lewis, 2005) for the people living in the community who may or may not already be victims of domestic violence. Likewise, the Protection from Harassment Act (PHA) 1997 enabled victims of domestic violence to have extra protection in place against stalking by ex partners and specifically section 2(1) of the PHA 1997 stipulates that ‘a person who pursues a course of conduct in breach of section 1 is guilty of an offence’ as Wallis (1996) found that, according to the Association of Chief Police Officers, 40% of harassment cases did in fact involve stalking between ex-partners or those who had been in a close relationship, something which Wallis described as a form of ‘post-separation domestic violence’. The Protection from Harassment Act 1997 also saw measures introduced which provided a link between civil and criminal law. As mentioned before s.2(1) provided an offence of criminal harassment, and, along with s.4 which provided a more serious offence of fear of violence, and so as a whole, the Act provided women with addition help in the form of a restraining order if their perpetrator was convicted of either offence. Section 4 proved to be particularly useful, despite there already being police powers under criminal law in existence, the powers in place only related to fear of actual physical violence whereas s.4 provided powers for fear of stalking which aimed to be more effective before any psychological or bodily harm had been caused, thus trying to nip the problem in the bus before escalating further. The Domestic Violence Crime and Victims Act which was introduced in 2004 aimed to protect victims of domestic violence by firstly making common assault an arrestable offence (which has since been repealed by s.110 of the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005). Secondly, the 2004 Act made a breach of a non-molestation order not only arrestable but also a criminal offence and finally the Act was also concerned with widening the scope of the civil law in cases of domestic violence as it was particularly evident that the remedies available were designed and implemented for married opposite sex couples, which, as a result, left cohabiting same sex couples experiencing exactly the same treatment but more importantly with a feeling that there was nothing that could be done about it. 4.2 Civil Law Since 1976, injunctions against violent partners could be obtained under three different statues all with the underlying principle that it was designed to protect victims of domestic violence. The Domestic Violence and Matrimonial Proceedings Act 1976 gave female victims of domestic violence the right to stay in the matrimonial home and also granted them exclusion orders against their abusive partners which would effectively suspend their right to live in the matrimonial home and, at that time, was considered to be a successful tool in ‘protecting victims more comprehensively than had ever been possible under criminal law’ (Booth, 2003). The Domestic Proceedings and Magistrates Court Act 1978 sought to aid the use of injunctions as a preventative for added violence to the victim by the perpetrator whilst the Matrimonial Homes Act 1983 was focused on simplifying the powers to cease the rights of the violence partner to live in the matrimonial home. The piece of legislation that was to be selected to aid the protection of the victim was dependant on a number of factors, for example, whether the parties were married or not and also if she lived with her abuser. However, research by Barron (1990) showed that in the majority of cases injunction that were made were ineffective and would soon be breached, in Barron’s words, ‘not worth the paper they are written on’. The introduction of the Family Law Act (FLA) 1996, particularly part IV, sought to eradicate the mess and confusion caused by the three earlier pieces of legislation with regards to imposing injunctions. The legislation itself, under part IV, introduced a concise set of remedies whilst widening the scope of eligibility to a wider range of family members, which since then have been extended further under the Domestic Violence Crime and Victims Act 2004. Under the Family Law Act 1996 there are two main types of injunctions that can be applied for under part IV. Firstly, s.42 of the FLA 1996 provides that a victim of domestic violence can apply for a non-molestation order against their perpetrator by whom they have been harassed or threatened by and further states that an applicant can only seek an order against a person with whom they are associated with, as set out by s.62 FLA 1996. This proved to be a useful tool, particularly for those who were either married, in a civil partnership, were cohabitants or even former cohabitants and tried to encompass a number of different types of relations and circumstances in the pursuit of combating not only physical violence but also intimidation and harassment from the perpetrator. A breach of such order is a criminal offence under the Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2000, and, if found guilty, the perpetrator can expect to receive a five year prison sentence on indictment, the aim of it being to reinforce and strengthen existing civil injunctions. Another form of injunction made available under s.33 and s.35-38 of the FLA 1996 for victims of domestic violence is that of an occupation order. An occupation order maintains and controls which party is to occupy either their present, former or intended home. To apply for this order the applicant must satisfy the requirement of entitlement under s.33(1) FLA 1996, that is, an ‘entitled’ person is one that has a legal right to occupy the property, for example, it is a matrimonial home, they have a tenancy agreement or some form of beneficial interest etc. Thus, it would be much harder for a cohabiting couple to show an interest in the property in comparison to those who are married or in a civil partnership as it is of the assumption that virtually all spouses will have at least some interest. Occupation orders can be considered to be extremely useful for victims of domestic violence, particularly if there are children involved, as the FLA 1996 introduced a test based on the ‘balance of harm’ and, in some instances, the test obliges the court to use the test to make an order. The purpose of it being to protect the applicant and more importantly any relevant child that is ‘likely to suffer significant harm attributable to conduct of the respondent’ (Family Law Act 1996, s.33(7)) Chapter 5: Rates of reporting and non-reporting The term ‘attrition’ is used to describe a process by which the total volume of crime that has been committed gradually gets eliminated leaving only a small proportion attaining conviction. This has come to be very evident in cases of domestic violence, with many police officers deciding to ‘no-crime’ the incident. As a result, it illuminates the issue of domestic violence as not being taken seriously by the criminal justice agencies and further highlights the problems many women face when exploring resolution via the criminal justice system and is supportive of what Hester and Westmarland (2006) found, that as little as five percent of domestic violence result in conviction. In 1992, a study by Grace et al. found that there were three main attrition points that hindered the criminal justice process of convicting perpetrators of domestic violence. As mentioned previously, some officers discretionally chose to ‘no-crime’ the incidents and as a result, disregarding it instantly. A second point was that the police and the crown prosecution service made decisions about whether or not they would proceed to prosecute, again leaving the victim in a predicament that was totally our of their hands. Finally, a third attrition point lay with the jury on whether they would choose to convict the defendant and according to Grace et al. cases which resulted in a conviction ‘were most likely to involve a young, single woman who had never seen their attacker before and were physically injured during their attack’, they also pointed out that ‘a â€Å"classic† rape, was still the most likely to result in a conviction’ compared t o a domestic violence incident between intimates. Throughout the years this has led to a culmination of reasons why many women may not have reported incidents of domestic violence and amongst these reasons there is one common denominator; the police response. Many women fear that because the abuse they face can take on many different forms, aside from just physical violence, that they would be wasting police time in a matter that the police may not classify as being ‘criminal’ similar to that of what Buzawa (1990) found that man police officers were keen to get involved with ‘real police work’ and, ironically, along with this they also fear that because it is a family matter then the police won’t really want to intrude and essentially get involved; something which many researchers such as Cheal (1991) have found before regarding police attitudes towards domestic disputes. A second concern for many women is that if they do call the police, they fear that they may not be taken seriously by the attending officers and become subjected to their so-called ‘dismissive and derogatory’ ways in which some officers are alleged to respond to such incidents. Horley (1988) found that victims perceived the police to be unsympathetic of their circumstances and according to the Women’s National Commission (2003) victims were sometimes asked ‘if you put up with it for so long, why are you now reporting it?’ This in turn can also have a damaging effect on the victims as if they do call the police and not a great deal gets done many women fear that as a repercussion for their actions they may provoke further violence by their partners and so it appears to be instilled in them that it’s easier to adopt a ‘put up and shut up’ attitude. Another problem which affects the report rate of domestic violence incidents is that many victims are either too reluctant to make statements or completely withdraw them quite soon after making them as Hoyle found in 1988, and, as a result, this has created what some researchers have described as ‘inadequate recording practices’ (Smith, 1989) and thus disguising the true figure of the crime itself despite the fact that sexual offences was the only crime to have a five percent increase compared to other types of crime, such as criminal damage, fraud and forgery, in 2009 (Home Office, 2009). Chapter 6: Methodology This dissertation is concerned with the legal response to incidents of domestic violence, starting from a historical perspective and moving through to a present day view of how effective the legal response is in dealing with such incidents. It has become to be an area of particular interest to myself as it incorporates an extremely important issue of domestic violence from the discipline of Criminology along with the application of relevant legislation from the discipline of Law. Given the sensitive nature of the topic area being researched, it was felt that the use of secondary sources to conduct this dissertation would be the most appropriate type of source to use and would automatically eradicate any ethical issues that would inevitably arise if primary research were to be conducted. Conducting secondary research also has many practical advantages; the main being that it has already been collected and, as aforesaid, diverts past any ethical implications that may arise from primary research, especially in a topic area as sensitive as domestic violence. The use of secondary sources also enables comparisons to be made between historical findings along with present day findings therefore providing a comparative and an overall picture of any trends that there may be. Finally the collection of data being used has been uninfluenced by the research process in comparison to findings that you would get from primary research, which tends to be more biased towards the researchers’ views. More specifically, secondary data analysis as a research method enables the combining of not only quantitative data but also qualitative data and overall will provide a detailed look at the changing response to incidents of domestic violence from a wealth of literature already surrounding the area, both historical and recent, along with government papers detailing rates of reporting to the police reflecting victims perspectives of them as an agency. This multi-dimensional approach was first coined as ‘triangulation’ in social research conducted by Campbell and Fiske (1959) but became more predominant following the work by Webb et al. (1966) which was based on unobtrusive measures and social research. Triangulation can be particularly useful as a process of ‘cross-checking findings from both quantitative and qualitative research’ (Deacon et al. 1998) and whilst Webb et al. noted that individual research methods aren’t ‘scientifically useless’ they stated that ‘the most fertile search for validity comes from a combined set of measures’ and Denzin (1970) further stated that triangulation ‘is the key to overcoming intrinsic bias that stems from single method, single observer and single theory studies’. Maguire (2000) also argues for ‘utilising as many diverse sources of evidence as feasible to answer a research question’ and that combining two methods overall increases the validity of the research. That is, by bringing together two approaches that equally have their own strengths and weaknesses can overall counter each other with their strengths and it is argued that if different methods draw to the same conclusions then this in itself makes for a stronger argument in that they are more plausible and credible (Noaks and Wincup, 2004). Due to the nature and area being explored in this dissertation it was felt that adopting the use of secondary sources would be more compliant with the ethical considerations that underpin conducting research. According to Diener and Crandall (1978), ethical considerations can be divided into four main areas. That is; whether there is harm to participants, whether this is a lack of informed consent, if there is an invasion of the participants’ privacy and finally, whether deception needs to be used in order to conduct the research. If primary research were to be conducted the two main areas for concern, according to the categories as set out by Diener and Crandall, would be the potential harm that could be caused to the participant in re-living psychologically painful and damaging events they may have been through for the purpose of this dissertation along with the inevitable invasion of their own personally privacy. The initial literature search was conducted by using key words or phrases related to the specified topic area of ‘domestic violence and the legal response’ which in turn provided a wealth of literature. However, this method of finding literature makes for the obtaining of unreliable sources more vulnerable and so for that reason only academic texts and journals were selected which covered area of domestic violence and the legal response and so provides a high quality of authority which is much more reliable. Naturally, only the most up to date texts were preferable but inevitably, with a topic area that requires comparatives to be made between historic views and contemporary views, many of the sources date back to the early eighties but is done so as to enable a critical analysis of area being researched. As a result of the literature search, the literature that was subsequently gained was done so by a snowball effect; identical to that of snowball sampling where one source leads to another and so forth. This, combined with the use of both governmental and non-governmental papers, again standing with high authority, enabled for a greater critical analysis between the issue of domestic violence and the legal response. Chapter 7: Discussion The overriding purpose of this dissertation was to critically examine the legal response to incidents of domestic violence; that is, examine the full spectrum of responses ranging from the police, the legislation in place designed to aid the police and also initiatives put forward by the Government. As stated previously in chapter two, domestic violence has long been a problem amongst society and throughout history it appears to have fought against the odds to be recognised as being truly criminal, as it is clear that the physical elements alone mirror those that can be found in Offences Against the Person Act (OAPA) 1861 yet shockingly the issue appears to have been covertly tolerated by the agencies (Berk et al., 1980). In the early 1990’s there was a dramatic shift towards the fight against domestic violence and as many as fifty percent of police forces had opened up specialist domestic violence units (Grace, 1995) presenting recognition for the issue and opposing Edwards (1989) earlier argument that the ‘police did not take seriously their response to crimes between intimates’. Despite this apparent dramatic shift towards the fight against domestic violence, the initiatives introduced and the policies and procedures in place, up until the mid-1990’s these policies and procedures needed to ‘translate directly into practice’ (Grace, 1995) in order for what Bourlet (1990) would consider to be effective policing. Yet quite shockingly, at this time when policy and procedures were in place, and even more recently where the issue of domestic violence is even more so   abundant in society in Harriet Harman’s (2008) â€Å"Tackling violence against women: A cross-government narrative† it was highlighted that there was still only some help for victims in certain areas, of which the help was not regarded as being ‘comprehensive, consistent or easy to access’; quite alarming for something described as being a ‘serious problem, with serious consequences’. In terms of reducing domestic violence from a policing angle, it has been found that a clear definition of domestic violence is needed between the police and also the other agencies as to eradicate its lack of coherence that has been evident in previous times. Along with this, consistency in their response needs to be clearly visible, despite some Feminists arguing that approaches such as restorative justice make male violence against women somewhat lawful. On the other hand, utilising powers of arrest and pursuing a case despite the victim withdrawing their statement, therefore enabling them to break the so-called cycle of the police ‘leaving the ball in the victims court’, whilst this approach apparently ‘legitimises’ male violence (Stubbs, 1997 in Cook and Bessant, 1997), in terms of effectiveness from a reducing domestic violence point of view; pro-arrest strategies can be seen as favourable. Training of domestic violence awareness, policy and practise also needs to be exercised along with an adoption of a more sympathetic style in order to successfully put an end to ‘inadequate recording practices’ (Smith, 1989) and remove the victims instilled feeling that it’s easier to ‘put up and shut up’. As an agency dealing with such incidents as sensitive as these, it is paramount that their response is one which is equally sensitive in reciprocation, and, whereas before victims have been left feeling helpless, their response should be one that leaves the victim feeling comforted, informed and in the knowledge that there are services designed specifically to aid them with such incidents as opposed to feeling isolated and subjected to ‘secondary victimisation’ (Stanko, 1985) where their ‘character and morality is questioned in such a way as to imply some responsibility for their victimisation’ (Katz and Mazur 1979, Chamber s and Miller, 1983). Chapter 8: Conclusion Drawing back to the beginning of this independent study, the overriding aim was to examine the legal response to incidents of domestic abuse by looking at the police response, the legislation available and finally the Governments standing on the issue itself. This was done by using an approach known as ‘triangulation’ originally developed by Campbell and Fiske (1959) whereby a mixture of findings from both qualitative and quantitative measures, founded by high standing scholars in the field, were cross-examined to overall increase the validity of the research and provide a more well-rounded stronger argument. From the research it is clear that domestic abuse, for many years, has somewhat been a ‘taboo’ subject and it can be appreciated from the wealth of literature surrounding the area that many merely ‘covertly tolerated’ the issue due to a variety of reasons; namely down to the relationship between the culture, law and society working against each other and having their own preconceptions. However, it’s not without notice that the days of Pizzey’s (1974) ‘wife battering’ are long gone and much in the way of change has happened. One aspect that has come to be particularly clear from the research is that in modern society today there are in fact Government initiatives in place alongside reams of legislation that can be utilised and used in conjunction with one another to aid the police in their own response and, overall, provide an effective legal response as a whole. However, this doesn’t detract from the feeling that still, despite the recognition and improvements made; no one really knows how to deal with it, despite not being as ‘taboo’ as it were previously. What is needed is a multi-dimensional approach, that is, for each of the agencies, both voluntary and involuntary to work alongside each other and utilise the resources between them lawfully in order to pin-point particular areas for concern, much like that of triangulation used in the methodology of this independent study. For Webb et al. (1966) stated that ‘the most fertile search for validity comes from a combined set of measures’, and, if the same principles are applied to the way in which the agencies work, by combining themselves and working as one, they provide themselves with a more successful chance of reducing domestic violence. References Adler, Z. (1987) Rape on trial, London:Routeledge. Barron, J. (1990) Not Worth the Paper? The Effectiveness of Legal Protection for Women and Children Experiencing Domestic Violence. Bristol: Women’s Aid Federation England. Benn, C. and Warpole, K. (1986) Death in the City, London: Canary. Berk, R. (1980). Bringing the cops back in: A study of efforts to make the criminal justice system more responsive to incidents of family violence. Social Science Research, 9, 195-215. Berk, R., Fenstermaker, S., Newton, P. (1984). Cops on call: Summoning the police to the scene of spousal violence. Law and Society Review, 18(3), 479-498. Booth, C.. (2003).  Beating the Batterers. 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Saturday, November 23, 2019

Five Ways to Ace Your Video Interview

Five Ways to Ace Your Video Interview An increase in job candidates willing to relocate for jobs, the high cost of shuttling them back and forth for interviews, and advancements in digital technology have resulted in a perfect storm of opportunity in the job hunting world: the video interview. While video interviews share the same ultimate goal as face-to-face interviews, there are some extra things to think about before getting ready for your close-up. Read on to learn five ways to make the very best impression during your video interview. 1. Set the SceneWhile you may be conducting the interview from your living room sofa, it’s essential to present yourself and your surroundings in the most professional way. Choose a bright, clean location, and be careful in rooms with lots of windows as these can cause backlighting and shadows.Eliminate clutter and annoying background noises, silence your phone, and close all irrelevant windows on your computer. Distractions not only disrupt your attention, but also the attenti on of your interviewer.Also, make sure you have access to a power source and charger: video is quick to drain computer batteries, and running out during an interview shows poor planning.2. Dress All Parts For the PartMany people assume that because interviewers only see them from the waist up, it’s acceptable to wear comfy clothing on the bottom along with your professional top. However, skip the inclination to dress down, and instead dress to impress with a top-to-bottom look. Not only will you feel more professional, but on the off chance you have to get up to retrieve a file or document, you won’t risk exposing your ratty old sweatpants.3. Do a â€Å"Test Run†Take time in advance to do a â€Å"test run† at the same location and time of day as your impending interview. Before the call, test your connection and voice/microphone. If possible, invest in a good pair of headphones: they can prevent connection problems as well as trim down on sound disruption .For best results, record a test call to see how you present on camera, and to determine any necessary adjustments or improvements.And don’t forget: you can even experiment with your camera positioning to present yourself in the most flattering way. Most people find that keeping the camera at eye level is the most attractive angle.4. Eye Contact is KeyWhile eye contact is important in any social or professional situation, it’s a particular challenge during the video interview. Why? Because the temptation is strong to watch yourself on the screen, instead of looking directly at the camera. This not only makes you look unfocused, but can be unsettling to the interviewer. Keep in mind that you’re not directly addressing the screen, but the camera above your screen. Practice this during your test run.5. Smile Early and OftenMeeting with a person face-to-face has a different â€Å"feel,† than conducting a video interview. While the connection can seem distant and disconnected, it is still extremely important to present yourself as a friendly, likable person. After all, most employers today are looking for soft skills, and failure to show off your personable side during a video interview can quickly remove you from the running.While participating in video interviews can feel strange or stressful, they’re increasingly part of the job hunt experience. Taking time to prepare yourself and become accustomed to the process can set you up for success. And remember: the ultimate goal is to enhance the hiring process and help you find the job of your dreams, so look at each video opportunity not as an obstacle, but as an opportunity.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Discussion Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 6

Discussion Questions - Essay Example (word count 105) Personality measurements can be used when an applicant is interested in employment. Tests have been developed that can determine certain factors of personality that are common for certain behaviors. As well, the ability to lead and make effective decisions can be made by the use of such tests. In the hiring practices in companies I have worked for these tests have been used. However, I have never seen an instance where the test actually excluded anyone from an interview or from being hired. It appears that these tests are given at the insistence of corporate, however there is no real substitute for human evaluation. (word count 104) Psychoanalytical theory uses the experiences of an individual to explain the development of abnormal behaviors. The way in which this has value is in understanding that not all behavior is derived from a physiological source, but can be developed from adverse experiences. When developing a clinical study about behavior, theories of origin can provide insight and dimension. However, psychoanalytical theory does not allow for the chemical imbalances that can influence psychological development. Using just this theory to analyze behavior is limiting and without the depth that influential physiological elements can provide within the context of developing a case study on an individual. (word count 102) Freud divided the personality into the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. The Id is the unconscious drive for basic needs in which pleasure is the driving motivation. The Ego is the conscious force that can temper the drives of the Id with reason and acknowledgement of consequences. The Superego creates a balance between the conscious and the unconscious, inhibiting drives that could be counterproductive. An understanding of this could allow for an employer to develop motivational strategies that

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The current State of Security in Smartphone Term Paper

The current State of Security in Smartphone - Term Paper Example Mobile technology is the latest domain that has been exploited by malicious intent users, like hackers, intruders etc, to achieve personal gains from jeopardizing the security of the legitimate users. This paper shall address the prevailing security threats that are witnessed in Smartphone technology alongside the technologies that are used to protect the devices from such threats. 2. Security in Smartphone The security threats that revolved around computers have migrated into the Smartphone domain and causing heavy losses to the users. To highlight the relevance of security measures on smartphones, Cheng (2011) provided results from a survey that was conducted by McAfee in the current year. The survey revealed that malware instances for Android (one of the most common smartphones in the current times) have increased by a significant figure of 76% in the last four months. Malware is defined as any program or application that is developed for the purpose of performing illicit activiti es, such as Trojans, viruses and worms. Some of the examples of security threats in smartphones are given below: 2.1 Smishing Phishing attacks had been known to cause harm to personal computers but a similar security threat is prevailing in the current times that is directed to harm smartphone- smishing and vishing. Ruggiero and Foote (2011) stated that hackers use the conventional approach of sending fake messages or voicemails to the recipients and urge them to call a financial institution with the aim to update their security settings etc. Voicemail systems are activated on the respective fake hosts that record sensitive information of the recipient. 2.2 Baseband Hacking Hackers have invented ways to intercept cellular phone calls by making the chips and firmware compromised in the Smartphone. Cheng (2011) stated that the baseband processor of the phone is turned into a listening device and enables the hackers to record conversation taking place between the participants. This can serve to record sensitive information and thus be used for malicious intent. 2.3 Infected Applications Applications are the most attractive feature of smartphones since they allow an individual to perform a diverse range of operations, for example play games, browse the web etc. Applications have also become one of the most common modes of infecting smartphones with compromised programs, such as Trojans. Apple and Blackberry follow a procedure of screening the applications (that might be contributed by developers) before publishing them on their App stores; this approach makes them avoid many Trojan attacks that might be hidden in the programs. Android follows a different approach and does not perform any screening process on the applications. Chang (2011) stated that an Android application with the name of â€Å"Steamy Window† has the power to convert a Smartphone into a botnet zombie. Upon successful acquisition of control over the phone, the hacker can perform any desired operation, such as: Send messages to any contact Make the browser point to compromised sites that may facilitate the transmission of sensitive information. Block the receiving of messages. 2.4 Jailbreaking and Rooting Apple IPhone School (2010) explains jail breaking as the hacking activity of the iPhone, iPad and iPod that allows the individual to have access to the Unix file system. Jailbreaking an iPhone is analogous to rooting an Android phone. Ngo (2009) stated that

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Chang Koh Metal Ptd Ltd Essay Example for Free

Chang Koh Metal Ptd Ltd Essay Comment on the fixed salary system that Andrew adopted from his former employer. Why was this system not effective for motivating the plant workers? Do you think that scrapping the fixed salary system and replacing it with the piece rate system was a good idea? What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of the piece rate system? Why was Andrew unsuccessful in his efforts to improve product quality? Do you think that a system of demerit points and wage deductions of the quality control workers would have been effective? Will more supervisors in the quality control department and shipping products to Singapore for final inspection solve the problem? What do you think would be an effective way to improve product quality? Were cross-cultural differences a factor on the effectiveness of the salary system? How effective do you think each system would have been if the plant was located in North America? Discuss the potential effects of implementing an MBO program in the plant. Do you think it would improve productivity and solve some of the problems? Are there any conditions under which the piece-rate system might have been more effective? What are some alternative ways to use pay to motivate the workers at the plant? Are there alternatives to the piece-rate system and how effective are they likely to be? What does this case say about using money as a motivator? What should Andrew do now? What would you do? ANSWERS QUESTION 1: The system was not effective for a number of reasons. It did not link pay to performance. Workers were paid a fixed salary based on the number of hours worked. This system does not take productivity into account as workers are paid the same amount per day regardless of the quantity produced. There is no incentive to reward workers for higher productivity and quality under this payment system. Another reason why the fixed salary system did not work was that it did not take cultural differences into account. Andrew imported an American business model that suited American employees who tend to have a highly individualistic culture. This is where workers perform their job based on what is required of them and do not care so much about other worker salaries but place more precedence over their own. The Chinese tend to have a culture of collectivism where each worker looks out for the best interests of their co-workers. Employees tend to place their collective goals ahead of those of the company and if both do not agree, a situation of lack of goal congruence results. QUESTION 2: Andrew adopted the same salary system as he seen used by his former employer and paid his workers a fixed salary based on the number of hours worked. The results of his actions were low productivity rates, and the workers demonstrated very little commitment to meeting the companys goals. Providing salaries for everyone changes labour cost from variable to fixed with serious employment security implications. The success of a fixed salary system requires stable, mature, responsible employees, a cooperative union, willing supervisors, and a workload that allows continuous employment. Based on the case it is evident that the fixed salary system adopted by Andrew was not successful hence we think that scrapping the fixed salary system and replacing it with the piece-rate system was a good idea but it  must be implemented with strict quality control programs. Piece-rate system usually works like this: An employee is guaranteed an hourly rate (probably the minimum wage) for performing an expected minimum output (the standard). For production over the standard, the employer pays so much per piece produced. Some of the strengths and weaknesses of the piece-rate system are as follows. Compared with a fixed salary system, the introduction of a piece-rate system usually leads to substantial increase in productivity. This system is a form of extrinsic motivation to employees. This means that the piece-rate pay, which stems from the work environment external to the task, motivates employees. According to the case, if workers produced at or below the minimum production standard for the day, they received additional money for each extra piece produced; hence they are motivated to produce above the rate in other to receive additional money. The piece-rate system may be designed to affect output other than performance. For example, employers may use the system to lower absenteeism and turnover. The system also allows employees to monitor the performance of individual employees, compare them and take the necessary actions based on the results and reduces non-value added activities which in turn lower cost. Along with the many strengths of the piece-rate system there are also some weaknesses. The use of the piece-rate system does increase output. Although production increases, other performance criteria may suffer for example quality. As mentioned in the case, after a short period of introducing the piece-rate system customer complained about low quality of the goods they were receiving from the company. Some employees are more inclined to perform better than other, since people have varying motivation to work. Employees may be dissatisfied if they have to work harder or if they feel manipulated by the system. And finally a piece-rate system that rewards individual productivity might decrease cooperation among workers. QUESTION 3: Andrews efforts were unsuccessful mainly because of the culture of the workers. The Chinese culture is one of collectivism which explains why the quality control inspectors chose to ignore products of poor quality. An implementation of a demerit system and wage deductions of quality workers may have worked but may have also had an adverse effect on the workforces motivation and their morale. The employment of additional supervisors and the shipping of final products may have also eased the situation but the question of whether the benefits outweigh the costs should be of major importance to Andrew as the chance of the company facing losses increases. Again, considering the culture of the workforce, there is a great possibility the most of the new supervisors can adopt the same attitude as the current ones. Presently, the method used by Andrew is a reactive one; an effective way to improve quality may be to have a more proactive system. Along with training the quality staff, Andrew should also train the production workers. The use of this preventative method will save a lot of resources that would otherwise go to waste. Andrew should also explain to all workers the true and long term cost of allowing product of poor quality to reach the market, which would be the loss of customers, the closing of the plant and their dismissal. QUESTION 4: Cross-cultural differences were a factor in the effectiveness of the salary systems. According to Hofstedes study, work-related values differ across culture. The North American culture is more individualistic whereas the culture in Asian countries such as China and Singapore is more collectivist. As a result, salary systems that emphasize individual initiative may not be successfully implemented in China as it would be in America. The collectivist culture in China emphasizes interdependence and loyalty to ones work group. If the plant was located in North America, the fixed salary system may not have been successful in increasing productivity because there in no incentive for employees to exert extra effort. In other words, the fixed salary system can be seen as unsuitable to the manufacturing industry, where improved productivity is important to the success of the firm. On the other hand, the piece-rate system can be effective if the plant was located in North America because given the countrys individualistic culture, employees would be more willing to exert individual effort to earn extra money. The company would benefit from increased productivity and highly motivated employees. In addition, the problem experienced with the quality control workers may not have been present if the company was located in North America. Given their individualistic nature, quality control employees in North America would not have accepted poor quality output from the production employees because it would not matter to them whether or not the production workers received a reduction in compensation. QUESTION 5: Management by Objectives (MBO) is a systematic, continuous management program designed to facilitate the establishment and accomplishment of goals as well as promote employee development. With an MBO program, objectives and goals for the organization are developed by top management and filtered down to the lower hierarchal levels. Chang Koh Metal Ptd Ltd is located in China, a country that values a high power distance between top management and other organizational members. As a result of this culture, employees value the goals of top management as it diffuses down the hierarchy. This would empower and motivate employees as they would feel as though they are part of the organization and therefore be more committed to serving it. When the goals are passed down to employees, they feel that they are pursuing a common objective, one that is shared by their coworkers. As a society that values collectivism among employees, the workers would feel that, by working towards common objectives, they are working towards the betterment of the  company. Workers at Chang Koh Metal Ptd Ltd are however not committed to the objectives and goals of the organization but hopefully through the MBO program they would realize the impact of their actions on others and on the organization as a whole. MBO programs aim to develop employees skills through training and employee interaction. At present, Jian Weis hiring practices allow people who do not have the skills necessary to perform a job to be hired for the job. By training the workers, Chang Koh Metal will benefit from increased productivity as skilled workers can be more efficient and effective in the workplace. Training will also solve the problem of poor quality as, through an MBO program, quality goals for both production and quality control employees can be set and adhered to. Employees can be trained to reduce internal and external failure of products while increasing prevention and appraisal procedures. This will result in financial savings to the organization. Periodic meeting can be held between workers and managers to monitor employees progress in achieving goals and review problems. An MBO program if implemented at Chang Koh Metal Ptd Ltd will solve the problems of lowered employee motivation, lack of skilled workers and lack of commitment towards the organization. Andrew Teo will be supportive of such a program because of his previous experience with American organizations but Jian Weis attitude will need to be changed. Jian Weis attitude is pro-collectivism as he seeks the best interest of the workers. However this attitude does not support the objectives of the organization as it hinders the effective quality control of products as well as aids in the violation of company rules and regulations against moonlighting and the use of company equipment to do so. The culture of the Chinese which includes high power distance and collectivism make it easy for the MBO programs to be implemented but attitude changes need to be made by the management before the program can be successful in Chang Koh Metal Ptd Ltd. QUESTION 6: The implementation of the piece rate system at the company did increase the  productivity of the workforce but at the expense of quality, so therefore, the conditions that may have made this pay system more effective should be focused on the maintenance of high quality with regards to the products. Firstly, the piece rate system may have worked better if the production workforce were properly trained to detect poor quality during the production process as this would minimize the proportion of the factory output that is below quality standards. Secondly, employees should be made aware of their task significance; this is impact of their job on others. By seeing the importance of what they do the workers may feel more needed which could increase their commitment to producing high quality products. A next and very important condition to be considered is the development of a quality circle within the organization. Involvement in this group can give employees a sense of empowerment. The quality circle would develop ways to improve quality; this may prove effective as it would be in compliance with the collectivist nature of the workers, Lastly, the use of total quality management in the factory can greatly improve the piece rate system. TQM is a systematic attempt to achieve continuous improvement in the quality of an organizations products and/ or services. This type of management encompasses aspects such as an obsession with customer satisfaction, a search for continuous improvement of processes, the prevention of quality error and high employee involvement and teamwork just to name a few. Top management must develop an atmosphere that is conducive to quality improvements. Workers must also be encouraged to provide feedback and to make suggestions. This, along with the aforementioned conditions should have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the piece rate system. QUESTION 7: Alternative wage incentive plans to link pay to performance at the production  plant include Profit sharing, Employee stock ownership programs, Gain sharing and Skilled based pay. Profit sharing is a group-oriented incentive system whereby when the firm makes a profit, some of the profit is returned to employees in the form of a bonus. This bonus can be paid in cash or in a deferred retirement fund. For Profit sharing to be considered, the firm must be profitable in the first place. Chang Koh Metal Ptd. Ltd. is not profitable currently. The general manager Andrew Teo could propose the profit sharing plan to the workers to motivate them to become more committed to the companys goals. Profits are only shared when the company makes a profit; however, profit sharing has some disadvantages associated with it that may cause Andrew to overlook this alternative completely. The problem with profit sharing is that there are too many factors beyond the control of the workforce that can affect profits no matter how productively workers perform their jobs. Such factors include the cost of raw materials, the state of the general economy such as a depression or slump, competition and other environmental factors the firm has no control over. Another disadvantage is that in a large firm, it is difficult to see the impact of ones work on profits, especially where the labour force is large. A second alternative to a piece rate system is Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs). This is an incentive plan that allows employees to own a predetermined portion of the companys shares and provide employees with a stake in the companys future success. By increasing employees stake in the company, employee stock options may increase employee loyalty and motivation due to workers becoming more aligned with the companys goals and interests. However just as with profit sharing, ESOPs have the problem of external factors affecting it. In Chang Koh Metal Ptd. Ltd., it may be difficult for employees to see the connection between their efforts and company profits. Also various factors can influence the value of a companys stock beside employee effort and performance. Unlike the previous alternatives, Gain sharing rewards workers performance based on factors the worker can control to improve productivity. External factors that the worker has no control tend to be overlooked. An example of a common gain sharing plan is the Scanlon Plan whereby managers and employees work together to solve problems  and pay is used to reward employees for cooperative behavior. At Chang Koh Metal Ptd. Ltd., gain sharing can be considered a good alternative to the piece rate system. Gain sharing builds trust, commitment and loyalty through extensive workforce participation. It can align employee goals with those of the company due to increased participation and teamwork by employees, who in turn learn more about the organization and focus on organizational objectives. One disadvantage of this incentive plan is that it focuses only on productivity and may neglect other important objectives such as quality. Andrew can overcome this by perhaps combining gain sharing with other programs such as Total Quality Management (TQM) to make it more effective. QUESTION 8: There are many adjustments in which Andrew can adopt. Firstly, Andrew and Jian Wei should have a meeting and discuss their differences, in order to solve or work out their problems. This is an important issue, because in order to manage a company effectively managers need to be able to work together. Secondly, it is clearly stated that the companys recruitment and selection process was inefficient. The employees were hired, based on an informal basis. Andrew has a fairly good idea on how to adopt this strategy that is, selecting the right people with the right qualifications in the right position. Most of the employees in the company were unqualified and did not have the appropriate skills to perform the tasks. By implementing an effective recruitment and selection program the problems of low productivity and morale will be solved. Furthermore, instead of training the quality control supervisors, Andrew also needs to train the production workers. He should emphasize the long term problems of not producing quality goods through quality control programs. In order to alleviate the problem of the technicians using the in maintenance machine to do moonlighting work, Andrew should have regular meetings with the employees. This would ensure that employees know about the rules and regulations of the company. These are some of the steps in which Andrew can put into place in order to improve the level of productivity and quality of the employees. As a manager, I would try to work out the differences with Jian Wei, in order to ensure a smooth flow in operations, throughout the company. The culture of the organization and employees would also be important. Analyzing the culture of the employees would help in establishing an effective and efficient workforce within the organization. Implementing this strategy would aid the other managers in preparing and analyzing strategies that will best suit the culture of the workforce. Furthermore, understanding the culture and attitudes of the employees would also help the human resource managers of the organization design specific motivational strategies to increase the morale of the employees. They would be able to distinguish whether the workers are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated within the plant. Another strategy that I would consider is to encourage cohesive teamwork amongst the workers throughout the plant. This action would increase the benefits of the piece-rate salary system. Also, since the employees would be working in groups, more collaboration will be taking place, as well as the workers will feel more committed within the organization. One of the main reasons why Chang Koh Metal Ptd. Ltd. is experiencing a number of quality problems is because of the recruitment of unqualified workers. As a manager I would recommend, that despite the lower operating costs of employing cheap labour qualified and skilled workers should be selected. One has to remember that in order for an organization to be successful it relies on the output from the employees. These are some of the things that I would implement as a manager in Chang Koh Limited.