Monday, May 25, 2020

What Does Argumentation Mean

Argumentation is the process of forming reasons, justifying beliefs, and drawing conclusions with the aim of influencing the thoughts and/or actions of others. Argumentation (or argumentation theory) also refers to the study of that process. Argumentation is an interdisciplinary field of study and a central concern of researchers in the disciplines of logic, dialectic, and rhetoric.   Contrast writing an argumentive essay, article, paper, speech, debate, or presentation with one thats purely persuasive. While a persuasive  piece can be built with anecdotes, imagery, and emotional appeals, an argumentive piece needs to rely on facts, research, evidence,   logic, and the like to back up its claim. It is useful in any field where findings or theories are presented to others for review, from science to philosophy and much in between.   You can use different methods, techniques, and tools when writing and organizing an argumentive piece: dissoi logoi  (showing a preponderance of evidence)expeditio  (eliminating all the wrong items to come to a conclusion)Rogerian argument  (appealing to common ground)Socratic dialogue  (reaching a conclusion through answering questions) Purpose and Development Effective argumentation has many uses—and critical thinking skills are helpful  even in everyday life—and the practice has developed over time. The three goals of critical argumentation are to identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments. The term argument is used in a special sense, referring to the giving of reasons to support or criticize a claim that is questionable, or open to doubt. To say something is a successful argument in this sense means that it gives a good reason, or several reasons, to support or criticize a claim.  The Argumentative SituationAn argumentative situation...is a site in which the activity of arguing takes place, where views are exchanged and changed, meanings explored, concepts developed, and understandings achieved. It may also be a site in which people are persuaded and disagreements resolved, but these popular goals are not the only ones, and too narrow a focus on them threatens to overlook much for which argumentation is a central and important tool.Argumentative Theory of ReasoningNow some researchers are suggesting that reason evolved for a completely different purpose: to win arguments. Rat ionality, by this yardstick...is nothing more or less than a servant of the hard-wired compulsion to triumph in the debating arena. According to this view, bias, lack of logic and other supposed flaws that pollute the stream of reason are instead social adaptations that enable one group to persuade (and defeat) another. Certitude works, however sharply it may depart from the truth.The Hitchhikers Guide to ArgumentationThe argument runs something like this. I refuse to prove that I exist, says God, for proof denies faith and without faith I am nothing. Sources D.N. Walton,   Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Christopher W. Tindale,   Rhetorical Argumentation: Principles of Theory and Practice. Sage, 2004. Patricia Cohen, Reason Seen More as Weapon Than Path to Truth.  The New York Times, June 14, 2011. Peter Jones as the Book in episode one of The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, 1979.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Plato s Apology And Crito - 983 Words

Throughout the history of western civilization, religion and politics have been put together and associated with the major historical events that have marked the history of humanity on earth. In the following written works, Plato’s Apology and Crito, The Gospel According to Mark, and Dante’s Inferno, religion and politics are shown to be intertwined, which emphasizes the impact of each individual character in each written work. Also, these written works explain how politics are affected by religion and vice versa. Plato’s Apology and Crito are plays that explain how Socrates, who was considered an honored and the wisest man in all of Athens by the Oracle, is sentenced to death because he was a setting a bad example by questioning the Oracle and Gods. In the Apology and Crito, it is seen how religion and politics are linked when Socrates is declared by the Delphic Oracle the wisest man in all of Athens; because unlike other people in Athens, Socrates knew that he did not know, â€Å"I am the wisest man alive, for I know one thing, and that is that I know nothing.† (Plato,19c). Socrates believes in the Gods, especially Apollo, but by going against what the Oracle says he faced political issues. After his declarations, Socrates is taken on a trial and he is accused of corrupting the youth and not believing in the Gods. In his speech Socrates tries to defend himself by questioning everybody, specially one of his accusers, Miletus, by using a series of sarcastic comparisons to proveShow MoreRelatedPlato s Apology And Crito976 Words   |  4 Pagesevents that have marked the history of humanity in earth. In the following written works, Plato’s apology and Crito, The gospel according to Mark and Date’s inferno, in each of these work religion and politics are intertwined to show the impact of these in each character in each written work. Also, these written works explain how politics is affected by religion and vise versa. In Plato’s Apology and Crito are two consecutive plays that explain how Socrates, which was considered an honored and the mostRead MorePlato s Apology And Crito977 Words   |  4 Pagesevents that have marked the history of humanity on earth. In the following written works, Plato’s apology and Crito, The gospel according to Mark and Date’s Inferno, in each of these works religion and politics are intertwined to show the impact of these in each character in each written work. Also, these written works explain how politics are affected by religion and vice versa. In Plato’s Apology and Crito, are two consecutive plays that explain how Socrates, which was considered an honored and theRead MoreAnalysis Of Plato s Apology And Crito Essay1857 Words   |  8 Pages Final Paper The word â€Å"philosophy† can be defined as someone’s theory as to how one should live their life. For Socrates, in Plato’s Apology and Crito, the concept of the human soul drives the actions in which he lives his life. His view of the purpose for one’s actions differs from that of his fellow Athenians, who viewed physical pleasures – money, status, power – as the most important objectives in life. Within his own argument to the Athenian jury against the importance of bodily pleasuresRead MoreTry to Persuade Socrates Friends to Save Him Against His Will1191 Words   |  5 PagesTry to persuade the Socrates`s friends to save him, against his will. Socrates Is one of the most colorful figures of the ancient Greek world, who the strangeness of privacy life have always been of special philosophical and political science. He was convict to death because he does not believe in God and corrupted the youth people to do the same. In Plato`s dialogue Crito, Socrates spent his last time in the prison. Crito is coming to save Socrates and have plans how toRead MoreComparison Between Crito and Apology1661 Words   |  7 PagesComparison between Crito and Apology For these two articles that we read in Crito and Apology by Plato, we could know Socrates is an enduring person with imagination, because he presents us with a mass of contradictions: Most eloquent men, yet he never wrote a word; ugliest yet most profoundly attractive; ignorant yet wise; wrongfully convicted, yet unwilling to avoid his unjust execution. Behind these conundrums is a contradiction less often explored: Socrates is at once the most Athenian, mostRead MorePlato s Life And Accomplishments874 Words   |  4 PagesPlato, a Greek philosopher, was born in Athens, in 428 B.C. under the name Aristoles. In his youth, he was a wrestler, that’s how he got the name ‘Plato’, that was his ring name. Plato means broad or flat, his shoulder were broad and his forehead was flat. He won a few trophies for wrestling but never made it to the Olympics at Olympia. He later change more toward the arts, and he wrote plays, and poetry, but in never won in any of his writin g competitions. â€Å"Having failed to win an Olympic goldRead MoreCritism in Plato2608 Words   |  11 Pagesthe Republic, Plato claims that only a very few individuals are capable of understanding how human life is to be lived. If it could be done, the rest of us would be best off it we were to let out lives be controlled by such individuals. This position held by Plato has been one of much discussion and disagreement over the years. In this paper I will attempt to give my own insight and stand on Plato s position and will evaluate his position as it emerges throughout the Apology, the Crito and the RepublicRead MoreSocrates World Views1549 Words   |  7 Pagesof this paper is to discern and construct the world views of Socrates through the various readings, lectures and videos that we have seen in class. Some of these sources include: Socrates by G. Rudebusch; excerpts from The Last Days of Socrates by Plato; and The Allegory of a Cave. Of the nine world views covered in cla ss, I will delve into my interpretation of four of them as seen through the various sources that we have been exposed to in class. These four world views will include Death, ConditionRead MoreSocrates Sides with Creon or a1379 Words   |  6 PagesSocrates#8217; Sides With? Through my reading of Plato#8217;s Apology of Socrates and Crito, I have been able to see how Socrates makes important decisions and what he primarily bases his decisions on. As a individual person we have individual morals which lead us to our own moral or immoral decisions. Sometimes are own morals or beliefs might oppose the views of the state or the enforced law that clams to find justice. In this case we rely on our own beliefs that may be through passedRead MoreEssay on Socrates Fight for Justice1101 Words   |  5 PagesPlato’s works Apology and Crito there is an attempt by Socrates to defend himself in court and defend his choice to receive the death penalty when found guilty. Although he makes very valid and strong arguments throughout one can only wonder why such a wise person would choose death over life. The following essay will analyze three quotes from Apology and Crito, find the correlation between them, and reveal any flaws that may exsist inside these ar guments made by Socrates. In Plato’s Apology Socrates

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Will There Be Peace in the Middle East - 1461 Words

Is peace possible in the Middle East? This question weighs heavy on the minds of many individuals and international players. Turmoil and conflict in the Middle East not only affects the people inhabiting this region, but also has global consequences. To answer this question, one must analyze the sources of conflict in the Middle East, historically, currently, and in the future. The limited amount of natural resources in this region has arguably served as the most major source of conflict in the Middle East. Other contributing factors to conflict are the leadership styles of the key players in positions of power, and religious strife. History is often the best indicator for the future. Unfortunately, the Middle East has had a history of†¦show more content†¦The ambition of the often autocratic leaders to acquire more land, which may bring them access to oil, water or arable land. The problem according to Sà ¸rli et. al is â€Å"scarcity† and â€Å"abundance† (1 47). Water is scarce, and oil is in abundance, but the access to both is limited. According to our text, the new â€Å"water wars† have emerged as a major source of conflict, in addition to the â€Å"oil wars† (Anderson et. al, 226). Water is scarce in the Middle East, and will continue to dwindle as the population rises. Not every country has the same access to the water sources, which will naturally cause problems. For example, Israel has control of the Golan, and Egypt of the Nile, and Kuwait of the Persian Gulf. Oil is in abundance, but only to a limited number of countries in the Middle East causing great economic disparity between those who have, and those who do not. Kuwait, having access to the Persian Gulf, produces a large supply of oil to international players. Given its high value internationally, and its worth, oil is much sought after. Another source of conflict as reported by Sà ¸rli et. al stems from the religious differences. As a whole, the Middle E ast is comprised of followers of Islam. But within the Islamic religion are the Sunni (which account for the majority), and the Shia. Tension lies between the two sects, especially given the fact that the Shia often hold the positions of power (Sà ¸rli, 147). Another majorShow MoreRelatedThe Peace Of The Middle East1445 Words   |  6 Pagesstate in the Middle East, there has been no time of peace between the many nations. After Israel was declared a nation, it was immediately rejected by the Palestinians and they rejected the partition of Palestine. Ever since then, Israel has been at war with its surrounding Middle Eastern neighbors multiple times. There has been a multitude of attempts to try and broker a peace throughout the Middle East and not a single plan has stood the test of time. The most noteworthy of these peace plan attemptsRead MorePeace in the Middle East1032 Words   |  5 Pagesagainst violent extremism in the Middle East. The President spoke about the great new era that is unfolding, founded on the equality of all people before God. This new era offers hope for the millions across the Middle East who seek a future of peace, progress, and opportunity. Unfortunately, these aspirations for liberty and justice are being threatened by extremists who murder the innocent in pursuit of power. Extremists Are Fomenting Instability In The Middle East One cause of instability isRead MorePeace in the Middle East Essay1991 Words   |  8 PagesPeace in the Middle East There will never be peace in the Middle East. The idea of peace in a certain region is a silly notion. What region has truly ever known peace? Allow me to rephrase my thesis: There will never be peace in the Middle East as long as western powers intervene into Arab affairs. It is common knowledge that throughout history western powers have colonized, occupied, and exploited indigenous people in the name of national interest, national security, and manifest destiny.Read MorePeace in the Middle East Essays1089 Words   |  5 PagesThe text begins its history with the Middle East around the time of Muhammad and the creation of Islam. From that time forth uprisings, demonstrations and acts of violence were commonplace and have continued to be since that time. To dig a little deeper and go back a little further in Middle East history one will find that this pattern of unrest stems from as far back as proof provides. To see a timeline of significant wars or battles of the Middle East, th e picture is better illustrated on justRead MoreThe Middle East Peace Process1849 Words   |  8 Pages This investigation will closely examine and show a detailed evaluation and explanation of the role played by Jimmy Carter in the Middle East peace process and will answer the question: For what reasons and in what ways did President Carter mediate the Camp David Accords and set the precedent for future peace agreement between the Arab World and Israel? The primary sources which will be evaluated are a biography of the life of Carter, which unfolds in an orderly manner the events that led up toRead MoreCan Peace in the Middle East Exist?1532 Words   |  7 PagesWill there or can there be peace in the Middle East? My answer may seem very contradictory but in my essay you will understand why. No there cant be any peace in the Middle East. Yes there will be peace in the Middle East. Peace will come only with Christs return. The very origin of Arabs began with Ishmael. God had given Abraham a promise of a son. Yet instead of waiting on God Sarah grew impatient and gave her handmaid to her husband to bare him a child because she was barren. I guessRead More The Middle East Peace Process Essay5569 Words   |  23 Pagesthe citizens of the Middle East have lived in the midst of death and fear. The hatred of a few holds the hopes of many hostage. The forces of extremism and terror are attempting to kill progress and peace by killing the innocent. And this casts a dark shadow over an entire region, President George W. Bush in his June 24, 2002 address to the nation. The conflict between Israel and Palestine is just one of the many facets that have shaped modern day politics in the Middle East. It is a conflictRead MoreThere Will Never Be Peace in the Middle East Essay1256 Words   |  6 PagesThe topic of peace has been on the mind of historians, political leaders, and the general public for as long as our history has been recorded. Will there ever be peace in the Middle East? Will the age old battles, both foreign and domestic ever end? This question, pondered on throughout decades of Western civilization, has both a simple answer and a complex reasoning. To even begin to uncover the answer, one must understand the conflict and its deeply rooted origins to even draw a hypothesis of theRead MoreStrategic Piece Of Middle East Peace1189 Words   |  5 PagesStrategic Piece to Middle East Peace Over the past thousand years, Oman has occupied a key strategic space in the Middle East stratum. With its vast mountain ranges, desert terrain, and steep cliffs along the coast, Oman over the years has proven to be very difficult to invade. This has allowed Oman to repel the majority of attacks from foreign militaries and maintain their sovereignty. The Southern and Eastern coastline of the country represents the key that makes Oman so important to the strengthRead MoreThe Reasons Behind the Difficulties of Bringing Peace to the Middle East1179 Words   |  5 PagesThe Reasons Behind the Difficulties of Bringing Peace to the Middle East A major source of conflict in the Middle East during the last fifty years has been the dispute between Arabs and Jews over Palestine. For hundreds of years, the great majority of the people living in Palestine were Arabs. But at the end of the nineteenth century some Jews in Europe were becoming increasingly bitter about growing anti-Semitism. They started to talk about setting up a state of their

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Assessment Plan and Improvement Plan †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Assessment Plan and Improvement Plan. Answer: Introduction: During the launch of the Human Resource plan, I understood that the importance of recruiting skilled employee to enhance the productivity of an organization. Hence while launching the HR plan I emphasised on thoroughly reviewing the background as well as skills of each employee during the interview session. I also incorporated the concept of reward and recognition in the HR plan in order to ensure loyalty and retention of the employees(Hendry, 2012). According to me, the lesson presented is highly effective for developing my professional experience as well as my career. I understood how effective team building can enhance the performance of the team by increasing the efficiency of the candidates. I also obtained knowledge about team building elements like communication, collaborative brainstorming and equality that increase the production of the team. When I was working on the HR plan, I understood the importance of staff management, communication management plan, assessment plan and improvement plan for developing an effective HR plan. Not only that, I understood that it is the responsibility of the HR department to motivate and look after the welfare of the employees for enhanced productivity and employee retention (Cania, 2014). From the lesson I understood that stakeholders that include employees, suppliers, owners and shareholder are the most crucial part of a business. Hence in my professional life, I will develop effective strategies that involve active communication and corporation in order to ensure stakeholders satisfaction and enhancement of the revenue of the organization. Reference List: Cania, L. (2014). The impact of strategic human resource management on organizational performance.Economia. Seria Management,17(2), 373-383. Hendry, C. (2012).Human resource management. Routledge, 12-15

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

More Than a Dream free essay sample

I have wanted to be a writer since I was eleven years old. Not just any writer, but a real, published writer. Even at that immature age, these dreams were close to my heart; I wanted desperately to be published. I remember my hopeful young self mailing a copy of my manuscript to Puffin Canada. This publishing house was compassionate; several long weeks later, they sent me a letter encouraging me to continue writing, but also bluntly explaining that they did not publish short stories, nor did they publish work by non-Canadians. It was kind of the publisher to write back, no doubt, but the truth was that I had come no closer to my goal of becoming a world-famous author. I am still a hopeful, yet-to-be-published writer. The only difference is that now I am 17, not 11, and my English classes are no longer spent writing imaginative short stories but rather honing and enhancing analytical skills to examine literary works. We will write a custom essay sample on More Than a Dream or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I miss those sixth-grade English classes since, more often than not, I was given the freedom to concoct whatever magic my imagination fancied, soaking in the pure pleasure of writing whatever I felt comfortable with and cheered by. Last year, some of this inspiration left over from my childhood developed into what seemed a brilliant idea for a novel. I was overwhelmed with excitement and worked on the story late each night, eager to press on and finish my first novel. I had never before finished anything more than a couple of pages long. â€Å"When you finish your book, Jane,† a good friend promised, â€Å"I’ll treat you to a meal at Fat Angelo’s.† Fat Angelo’s is a delightful, delicious Italian restaurant in Hong Kong. Another friend and neighbor would always ask about the latest developments in my stories when we rode the bus home together. Being a proud, hopeful writer, I always had lots to say. â€Å"You’ll be a famous writer someday,† my buddy from Edmonton posted kindly on my website. I believed them. I could be diligent when I wanted to be, and in this case, I desperately did. I got little sleep and my homework load was steadily increasing but I refused to allow anything to stand between me and my success as a published writer. I was close this time, closer than I had ever been. When I had over 80 double-spaced pages, I was more than a little proud of myself. Sadly, it became increasingly difficult to write, partly because I had thoughtlessly skipped over essential planning at the start of my novel. I didn’t know what I could do with my main character, the charming Arielle, considering that she had pitifully committed suicide under my orders. I had failed to plan. And as my father says, â€Å"To fail to plan is to plan to fail.† I hate it when he says that. But oh, how true! Reading back over what I had written, I found more problems with the story than just a failure to plan. The story was extremely dumb. It was almost unbearable to find that the parts I had meant to be sad, tear-jerking moments were in fact foolish and silly. The romantic segments I had so lovingly crafted were immature and unrealistic. It was horrifying. That â€Å"book† was itself horrifying. It was terribly disappointing to see my many months of work go to waste. Once again, even after so much time and effort had been devoted to writing, my dreams were not one inch closer to reality than five years before. Today, I am 17. Slightly older than 11, slightly wiser than 16. Perhaps by now I have finally learned the truth about writing: it takes more than a dream. Perseverance and brilliance are right up there, too.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Mandatory Death Penalty for Murder essays

Mandatory Death Penalty for Murder essays To take another persons life is horrible. It doesnt matter what crime or crimes he committed. Executing someone for committing a murder is morally wrong, because execution is equally as wrong as murder. Even if it seems that person deserve to be executed, his family and friends doesnt deserve to suffer from his loss. A person should have no excuse for murder no matter what the case is. However by killing that person youre not solving anything. By executing the murderer you could be giving him the easy way out because he might rather have a quick, painless death than to spend the rest of his life in prison. If the family and friends of the victim are going to suffer emotionally for the rest of their life, so should the murderer. Death wont make him suffer; it would only give him a painless end. Thats why we should lock him up in prison for the rest of his life: make him feel pain equivalent to the suffering of the victims family and friends. The other reason why the death penalty should be abolished is because death is final; thus it is not acceptable to make mistakes on the matter. As long as we have capital punishment, innocent people will be executed, it is unavoidable. We cant afford errors and rarely do we have complete proof that a person committed a murder. Therefore its always better to be safe than sorry. You could always release someone from prison if there was a mistake but you cant give somebodys life back. By abolishing the death penalty, it does not mean that we will be releasing convicted murderers. There are other reasonable choices such as life without parole. So even if innocent people are sentenced to life imprisonment, there is hope that someday someone will be able to prove their innocence. But once a person is executed, the opportunity for him to prove his innocence dies with him. ...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Motivation and motvited Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Motivation and motvited - Essay Example In addition, most of the behaviors that we possess like sleeping and eating are possessed by biology. This is because of the biological need of eating and sleeping that human beings possess. Motivation requires an activity that has to be mental which include actions like planning, organizing, and physical activity that involves persistence and effort. When mentoring other people, I believe it is important for mentors to motivate and encourage individuals (Arrington, 23). For example, I ask individuals to have mini goals within their goals. In addition, short-term goals help people achieve what they want at a short time and may require minimum resources while long-term goals are achievable over a longer period. This helps individuals develop and succeed. In my opinion, as much as people are motivated to do something, there are certain blocks that make people not achieve what they want in life. There is the feeling of fear that people have, for example the fear to fail or fear of success. Fear prevents people from achieving or expressing their full potential. Most successful people take risks and do not fear to start up their goals. They get out of their comfort zones and go for what they want. I normally ask individuals to get out of their comfort zones by trying something new and not fearing that it will fail or succeed. It is vi tal for people to get encouragement and support as they advance to a higher level. Additionally, learned pessimism is another block to expressing motivation. These are habits of thought acquired by people in their childhood. If an individual believes that something bad will happen or something good will happens then it solemnly happens. Individuals should learn to have positive thoughts, to keep on encouraging themselves, and to avoid people who discourage them. I also believe that it is important to accept both positive and negative feedback from people. Positive criticism is also good since people learn from their